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  • 3D Printing

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    3D Printing Service – Definition:

    3D Printing/ Rapid Prototyping technology has been defined by Lam et al (2002) [1], in which 3D Printing has been defined as “a process to create three dimensional object via repetitive deposition and processing of materials layer by layer, using a computer-aided device”. Rengier et al (2010) [2] agrees with this opinion and adds that, 3D printers read in data from CAD drawings and precisely place layers of liquid, powder or solid, and by this way build up a model from a series of cross-section. To sum up, Campbell et al (2011) [3] describes the 3D printing process simply as “similar to building an object by standard cubes or Legos”.



    3D Printing allows for rapid manufacturing of prototypes at a reasonable price. Different from other manufacturing technology, 3D printing can create any shape desired. In productions, this technology has been used in manufacturing moulds for production and prototypes before entering mass production…

    3D Printing - Mould

                                                                    3D Printing Service – Mould (Source: Plastix World)


    Based on CT scan data, hospitals can generate accurate CAD model of patients’ organs for the purpose of health treatment. According to Jacobs et al (2008) [4], imaging technologies such as CT Scanning, in conjuction with 3D Printing technology of patients’ organs, can allow for surgical doctors to have a three-dimensional overview of their surgical target, as well as help surgeons to practice carefully before executing a complicated surgical intervention.  

    Application of 3D printing is becoming mainstream in healthcare because of the strengths it provides. With 3D printing, we can create prosthetic body parts like prosthetic arms and legs for the amputees. We can also make accessories for recovery, such as casts for broken arms/legs, joints, etc. Furthermore, 3D printing has recently been applied in dental care as well. 3D Printing has been used for printing ceramic or titan teeth with very high precision as well as precise shape identical to real teeth, bringing about realistic sensation for patients,…

    3D Printing - Heart model

                                                              3D Printing Service – Heart model (Source: Futurism)


    With the use of Rapid Prototyping, military weapons and vehicles have been manufactured with time shortened down to 20% and costs only 10% compared with traditional methods. One such example is the first 3D printed submarine of the US Navy, manufactured in July, 2017 (Keller, 2017) [5]

    3D Printing - Submarine

                                                    3D Printing Service – Submarine (Source: Task & Purpose)


    The first 3D printed jacket was made by Danit Peleg, a fashion designer based in Tel-Aviv, Israel. Because each jacket takes 100 hours to manufacture, 3D printing in fashion section still has a long way to reach mass production capability with reasonable price.

    3D Printing - Fashion

      3D Printing Service – Fashion (Source: New York Post)

    Methods, processes:


    FDM (Fused Deposion Modelling) is a 3D printing method with low cost, and it is the most frequently used of 3D Printing technology. The printing process works by melting plastic filament and deposit, via extruder, one layer at a time on build platform according to 3D data provided to the printer. Each layer cools down, hardens and bonds with the previous layer, one by one until the object is formed (, 2014) [6].

    3D Printing - FDM

                                                                                      3D Printing Service – FDM


    Stereolithography is the pioneer method of the 3D Printing technology. This technology bases on a laser process. When laser beam traces on liquid Photopolymer based on precise coordinates, the polymer hardens precisely where the laser beam hits, until the print object is finished (3D, 2014) [6].

    3D Printing - Stereolithography

                                                                            3D Printing Service – Stereolithography

    DLP (Digital Light Processing):

    Similar to Stereolithography, but DLP replaces laser source with arc lamp, allowing for the light to trace the entire resin in one scan. Thus, DLP has a much higher manufacturing speed than Stereolithography (, 2014) [5].

    3D Printing - DLP

                                                                                    3D Printing Service – DLP

    Laser Sintering/ Laser Melting:

    Later Sintering / Laser Melting refers to 3D Printing Process that works with powdered materials.

    The laser beam traces along the powder bed of tightly compact powdered material. As the laser interacts with the powder, the particles are fused and become a solid unit. As each layer is completed, the powder bed lowers and the roller smooths the next layer over to be formed and fused with the last layer. The process continues until the object is fully constructed (, 2014).

    3D Printing - Laser Sintering

                                                                  3D Printing Service – Laser Sintering

    Binder Jetting:

    Binder Jetting is the process of spraying powder material selectively into a powder bed to fuse it a layer at a time to create the required part. As each layer is completed, the powder bed drops incrementally and a roller smooths the powder over to the next pass of the jet heads, with the binder for the next layer to be formed and fused.

    Binder jetting can use a wider variety of materials, including food and ceramics. Moreover, it is possible to add full color palette to the binder (, 2014).

    3D Printing - Binder Jetting

                                                                              3D Printing Service – Binder Jetting

    Inkjet: Material Jetting:

    Material Jetting is the 3D Printing process where actual material is selectively jetted through multiple jet heads. However, as the materials are usually liquid photopolymers, the object must be cured with UV light to become solid as each layer is deposited.

    Due to the nature of the manufacturing process, it is possible for multiple materials to be simultaneously deposited for added characteristics and properties (, 2014).

    3D Printing - Material Jetting

                                                                              3D Printing Service – Material Jetting

    3D Printing Outsourcing service Vietnam at Smart Design Labs:

    Tags: Reverse Engineering, 3D Scanning, Smart Design Labs.



    [1] Lam, C.X.F., Mo, X.M., Teoh, S.H. and Hutmacher, D.W., 2002. Scaffold development using 3D printing with a starch-based polymer. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 20(1), pp.49-56.

    [2] Rengier, F., Mehndiratta, A., von Tengg-Kobligk, H., Zechmann, C.M., Unterhinninghofen, R., Kauczor, H.U. and Giesel, F.L., 2010. 3D printing based on imaging data: review of medical applications. International

    [3] Campbell, T., Williams, C., Ivanova, O., Garrett, B., 2011, “Could 3D Printing change the world?: Technologies, Potential, and Implications of Additive Manufacturing”, Strategic Foresight Report [ONLINE]. Available from Atlantic Council at URL:

    [4] Jacobs, S., Grunert, R., Mohr, F.W. and Falk, V., 2008. 3D-Imaging of cardiac structures using 3D heart models for planning in heart surgery: a preliminary study. Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery7(1), pp.6-9.

    [5] Keller, J., 2017, “The Navy can now 3D Print submarines on the fly for SEALs” [ONLINE]. Available from Business Insider at URL:

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